Research Highlights
Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

Details, click here

Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

Details, click here

Reconstituted postsynaptic density as a molecular platform for understanding synapse formation and plasticity

Synapses are semi-membraneless, protein-dense, sub-micron chemical reaction compartments responsible for signal processing in each and every neuron. Proper formation and dynamic responses to stimulations of synapses, both during development and in adult, are fundamental to functions of mammalian brains, although the molecular basis governing formation and modulation of compartmentalized synaptic assemblies is unclear. Here, we used a biochemical reconstitution approach to show that, both in solution and on supported membrane bilayers, multivalent interaction networks formed by major excitatory postsynaptic density (PSD) scaffold proteins led to formation of PSD-like assemblies via phase separation. The reconstituted PSD-like assemblies can cluster receptors, selectively concentrate enzymes, promote actin bundle formation, and expel inhibitory postsynaptic proteins. Additionally, the condensed phase PSD assemblies have features that are distinct from those in homogeneous solutions and fit for synaptic functions. Thus, we have built a molecular platform for understanding how neuronal synapses are formed and dynamically regulated.

Details, click here

Microglia Colonization of Developing Zebrafish Midbrain Is Promoted by Apoptotic Neuron and Lysophosphatidylcholine

 Microglia are CNS resident macrophages, and they play important roles in neural development and function. Recent studies have suggested that murine microglia arise from a single source, the yolk sac (YS), yet these studies lack spatial resolution to define the bona fide source(s) for microglia. Here, using light-induced high temporal-spatial resolution fate mapping, we challenge this single-source view by showing that microglia in zebrafish arise from multiple sources. The embryonic/larval microglia originate from the rostral blood island (RBI) region, the equivalent of mouse YS for myelopoiesis, whereas the adult microglia arise from the ventral wall of dorsal aorta (VDA) region, a tissue also producing definitive hematopoiesis in mouse. We further show that the VDA-region-derived microglia are Runx1 dependent, but cMyb independent, and developmentally regulated differently from the RBI region-derived microglia. Our study establishes a new paradigm for investigating the development and function of distinct microglia populations.

HKUST Scientists Discover How RNA Polymerase II Maintains Highly Accurate Gene Transcription with High-Performance Computing

A research team led by Prof. HUANG Xuhui, Padma Harilela Associate Professor of Science in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering at HKUST, recently discovered the mechanism for RNA polymerase II to correct errors in RNA synthesis.

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Phase Transition in Postsynaptic Densities Underlies Formation of Synaptic Complexes and Synaptic Plasticity

 Prof. Mingjie zhang’s lab discovers that a RAS/RAP GTPase activator SynGAP and a master synaptic scaffold protein PSD-95 form a multimeric complex and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation, a mechanism that may underlie PSD formation and plasticity. Their work appeared in the Aug. 25th issue of Cell.

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